Television Broadcasting

Television Broadcasting

Overview
Television broadcasting is the technology of transmitting visual images and signals with or without sound. It can be transmitted via terrestrial wireless, cable, and satellite platforms.

TV services are classified as follows;
  1. Analogue Terrestrial Television
  2. Digital Terrestrial Pay Television (Service Only)
  3. Digital Terrestrial Pay Television (Service and Frequency)
  4. Digital Terrestrial Free-To-Air Television Programme Channel (Nationwide Coverage)
  5. Digital Terrestrial Free-To-Air Television Programme Channel (Regional Coverage)
  6. Satellite Television Broadcasting (Pay TV Direct-To-Home Bouquet)
  7. Satellite Television Broadcasting (Free-To-Air Direct-To-Home Bouquet)
  8. Satellite Television Broadcasting (Free-To-Air Direct-To-Home Single Channel)
  9. Digital Cable Television.
Technical Information
The Broadcasting service is a communication service in which the transmissions are intended for direct reception by the general public. Television (TV) broadcasting service is a broadcasting service consisting of the transmission of visual images or other visible signals, with or without accompanying sounds, where the visual images are such that sequences of them are seen as moving pictures. TV services may be transmitted over cable, terrestrial wireless or satellite platforms.

In Ghana, the National Communications Authority (NCA) is mandated by Section 2 of the Electronic Communications Act, 2008, Act 775 to;
  • “regulate the radio spectrum designated or allocated for use by broadcasting organisations and providers of broadcasting services”;
  • “… determine technical and other standards and issue guidelines for the operation of broadcasting organisations …”
  • “… adopt policies to cater for rural communities and for this purpose, it may waive fees wholly or in part for the grant of a frequency authorisation”.
Television broadcasting in Ghana is currently categorised into the following services;
  1. Analogue Terrestrial Television: Analogue Terrestrial Television Stations are TV stations that are transmitted as analogue waveforms and are received using common aerials on a TV set. These stations are being migrated from analogue to digital to comply with the Geneva 2006 Agreement of the International Telecommunications Union.
  2. Digital Terrestrial Free-To-Air Television Programme Channel (Nationwide Coverage): A Television Broadcasting Service in which a single programme channel is broadcast unencrypted or in ‘clear’ over a digital terrestrial television (DTT) network with national coverage and capable of being received without payment of subscription fees.
  3. Digital Terrestrial Free-To-Air Television Programme Channel (Regional Coverage): A Television Broadcasting Service in which a single programme channel is broadcast unencrypted or in ‘clear’ over a digital terrestrial television (DTT) network with coverage within a specific administrative region(s) of Ghana and capable of being received without payment of subscription fees.
  4. Digital Terrestrial Pay Television (Service only): Television Broadcasting Service comprising of a bouquet of services provided over a third party wireless digital terrestrial television network and which requires television viewers to pay a subscription fee to watch the television service. This means that such a licensee can provide a pay-tv service without building their network; they will lease transmission capacity from another company or entity.
  5. Digital Terrestrial Pay Television (Service and Frequency): Television Broadcasting Service provided over the service provider’s own wireless digital terrestrial television network and which requires television viewers to pay a subscription fee to watch the television service. The service provider obtains a frequency for the rollout of its DTT transmission network infrastructure.
  6. Digital Terrestrial Television (Network only): Television Broadcasting Service that provides a wireless Digital Terrestrial Television network for the use by Digital Terrestrial Television Free-to-Air Television Programme Channels and Digital Terrestrial Pay Television (Service Only) operators to broadcast their contents. This means that such Licensees build a transmission network but does not broadcast any channels of their own. They lease their network to other licensee holders to use to provide services to the public.
  7. Digital Terrestrial Radio Service on TV Multiplex: A sound broadcasting service in which content is deployed on the Digital Terrestrial Television Network.
  8. Satellite Television Broadcasting (Pay TV Direct-To-Home Bouquet): A Television Broadcasting Service comprising of a bouquet of services provided over a satellite transponder and which requires television viewers to pay a subscription fee to watch the television service.
  9. Satellite Television Broadcasting (Free-To-Air Direct-To-Home Bouquet): Television Broadcasting Service comprising of a bouquet of services provided over a satellite transponder and which is capable of being received without payment of subscription fees.
  10. Satellite Television Broadcasting (Free-To-Air Direct-To-Home Single Channel): Television Broadcasting Service in which a single programme channel is broadcast over a satellite transponder and capable of being received without payment of subscription fees.
  11. Digital Terrestrial Television Additional Services (eg. Teletext, etc): A text-based news and information service on a digital television platform that provides value-added services such as advertisements, news, announcements, etc.
  12. Digital Terrestrial Mobile Television Service (Stand-alone Authorisation): Television Broadcasting Service where the distribution of television programs to subscribers is delivered wirelessly and capable of being received by mobile devices.
  13. Digital Cable Television: Television Broadcasting Service where the distribution of television programs to subscribers is delivered by the means of coaxial cables or through fiber-optic cables and requires the payment of subscription fees.
  14. Television over Internet Protocol (Pay TV): Television Broadcasting Service where the distribution of television programs to subscribers is delivered over Internet Protocol (IP) and requires the payment of subscription fees.
Application Form
Note: It is mandatory to complete the appropriate Customer Registration Form in addition to the Application Form.

Application Form for Digital Video Broadcasting Authorisation
Renewal Form
Note: It is mandatory to complete the appropriate Customer Registration Form in addition to the Renewal Form.

Application for Renewal of Digital Video Broadcasting Authorisation
Fees And Charges